Native American or Indigenous Learning Research: A Pathfinder
II. Annotated Bibliography
1. AIHEC (American Indian Higher Education Consortium). [Online]. Retrieved
April 8, 2002 from http://www.aihec.org/.
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) provides research
on tribal colleges and universities. The "Research" portion
of the Web site is most useful for locating learning research.
2. Alaska Native Knowledge Network. [Online]. Alaska Federation of Natives,
University of Alaska, National Science Foundation, Rural School &
Community Trust. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/index.html.
The Alaska Native Knowledge Network seeks to maintain the indigenous
culture while providing information for the improvement of cultural
learning and educational practices for Alaskan native students.
3. American Indians and Alaska Natives. [Online]. ERIC: Clearinghouse
on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved April 10, 2002 from
Good source for finding research and resources for Native American
education. The ERIC digests are particularly useful and are freely available
on the Web. "The Clearinghouse is part of a nationwide system of
16 clearinghouses in the Education Resources Information Center. Each
clearinghouse is responsible for adding to the ERIC database education-related
works on specific topics."
4. Barnhardt, Ray. (2002). Teaching/learning across cultures: strategies
for success. Alaska Native Knowledge Network. Retrieved April 15, 2002
This article reports that learning is improved when educators are aware
of the indigenous worldview and
incorporate such knowledge into the curriculum. Furthermore, Barnhardt
suggests that ways of determining
what has been learned should be altered as well.
5. Bobiwash, A. Rodney. (1999). Long term strategies for institutional
change in universities and colleges: facilitating native people negotiating
a middle ground. Retrieved April 20, 2002 from http://www.cwis.org/fwj/41/strat.html.
This article depicts the ideal learning environment in higher education
for Native students. The issues brought up questions an "either/or"
mentality. The author calls for higher education institutions to open
their doors to the Indian population by striving to harmonize nontraditional
academics with their Native background and worldview. "A person
might exhibit many of the outward signs of enculturation yet hold deep
foundational values which are Native."
6. Center for Educational Technology in Indian America. (2002). Online
Resources for Indian Education. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.ldoe.org/cetia/resource.htm.
7. Demmert, Jr., William G. (2001). Improving academic performance
among Native American students: a review of the research literature.
[Online]. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved
April 8, 2002 from http://www.ael.org/eric/demmert.pdf.
"Except for the tribal schools, responsibility for the education
of Native children and youth has been transferred from the tribes to
state agencies, mostly to administrators and other individuals outside
the communities or tribes. With this transfer of responsibility, Native
students began experiencing high levels of educational failure
and a growing ambivalence toward learning traditional tribal knowledge
and skills. They often exhibited indifference to formal Western academic
learning, as well."
8. Evans, Susan D. (2001). The potential contribution of comparative
and international education to educational reform: an Examination of
traditional, non-Western education. [Online]. Paper presented at the
Annual Meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society
(Washington, DC, March 14-17, 2001). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.indianeduresearch.net/nonwestern.pdf.
The ancient methods of education and learning are essential to the
reform of modern education. The author advocates drawing paradigms from
Native American cultural modes of education. The reasons for such suggestions
include an emphasis on character education, integrated curriculum and
9. Introduction to the DVC Learning Style Survey for College. [Online].
DVC Learning Style Survey for College. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from
10. Jacobs, Don Trent and Reyhner, Jon. (2002). Preparing teachers
to support American Indian and Alaska Native student success and cultural
heritage. ERIC Digest, EDO-RC-01-13. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.indianeduresearch.net/edorc01-13.htm.
11. Journal of American Indian Education, Special Issue, August 1989.
Retrieved April 12, 2002 from http://jaie.asu.edu/sp/index.html.
This August 1989 special edition of the journal focusses almost primarily
on research regarding the educational environment and learning styles
of Native American students.
12. Lipka, Jerry. (2002). Schooling for self-determination: research
on the effects of including Native language and culture in the schools.
ERIC Digest, EDO-RC-01-12. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.indianeduresearch.net/edorc01-12.htm.
This article discusses the impact of inculturation in American schools
and ways in which this might be remedied. Even though this article pertains
to native students in non-Indian schools, the subject of facilitating
the retention of Native culture is an integral issue to all educators
of Native American students.
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13. McKay, Michelle. (1999). Relating indigenous pedagogy to the writing
process. Journal of Indigenous Thought. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from
Although this article is written from a Canadian perspective, the author's
intent to describe the Indigenous worldview and its role is education
is valuable. The author focuses of the commonalities that exist among
North American Indian nations to define the concept of "Indigenous
pedagogy." The holistic approach to learning is an important aspect
of understanding the educational needs of Native students. "The
teacher is a guide to the learning experience of a child rather than
the master of their development."
14. More, Arthur J. (1989). Native Indian learning styles: a review
for researchers and teachers. Journal of American Indian Education,
special ed., August 1989. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from http://jaie.asu.edu/sp/V27S1nat.htm.
This article provides a clear explanation of the current theory of
learning styles and the implications of such theory in educating American
Indian students. The author claims that there is a uniquely different
learning styles among American Indians, but that such students approach
to learning and cultural background should be considered and dealt with
when teaching American Indian students. "The reader is reminded
that the most effective application of learning style theory lies in
the greater understanding and ability to adapt to individual differences,
and in identifying and building on the strengths of Indian students."
15. National Center for Education Statistics, American Indian and Alaska
Native Education. (2002). Office of Educational Research & Improvement,
U.S. Dept. of Education. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://nces.ed.gov/.
A good source of statistics regarding Indian Education, including statistics
on tribal colleges, graduation rates, and conditions facing Indian education.
16. NativeCulture.com. (2001). NativeCulture.com: teaching, learning
and information sharing. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.nativeculture.com/learn/.
The "Teaching and Learning" component of this cultural resource
supplies the reader with current research articles in education and
links to various educational institutions which serve indigenous learners.
17. Office of Indian Education. [Online]. U.S. Department of Education.
Retrieved April 20, 2002 from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/oie/index.html.
The U.S. Department of Education's Native American component provides
links to statistical and educational research pertaining to indigenous
18. Reyhner, Jon. (2002). American Indian Education. [Online]. Northern
Arizona University. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/AIE/index.html.
This is a Web site provided by a major researcher in the area of Native
American education. Teacher resources are included, as well as research
reports and issues that need to be addressed in further research.
19. Reyhner, Jon, Lee, Harry, & Gabbard, David. (1993). A specialized
knowledge base for teaching American Indian and Alaska Native students.
Tribal College Journal, 4(4). Retrieved April 15, 2002, from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/TCarticle.html.
This article discusses the high-risk status of Native students in education
and the factors influencing such a problem. The main arguments address
the lack of cultural appropriateness of the classroom setting and the
uniqueness of educating indigenous people. The authors advocate the
acquisition of Native cultural knowledge of the part of the teachers
of Native students in order to facilitate a culturally appropriate learning
environment. "When the culture of the school and the culture of
the child are incompatible, 'the school fails to teach and the child
fails to learn'."
20. Roy, Loriene and Larsen, Peter. (2002). Oksale: an indigenous approach
to creating a virtual library of education resources. D-Lib Magazine,
8(3). Retrieved April 21, 2002 from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march02/roy/03roy.html.
Although this article details the experiences of a particular project,
the first half of the article describes the indigenous approach to learning
which is quite useful for educators of indigenous learners.
21 Schulz, William E. and Bravi, Gerry. (1986). Classroom learning
environment in North American schools. Journal of American Indian Education,
26(1). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://jaie.asu.edu/v26/V26S1cla.htm.
In light of the educational problems that are facing Native American
educators, these authors suggest a shift in perspective in the research
carried out. The lack of motivation of students is related to the kind
of culture that is put forth in the education environment.
22. Swisher, Karen. (1991). American Indian/Alaskan Native learning
styles: research and practice. ERIC digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural
Education and Small Schools. ED335175, 1991-05-00. Retrieved April 15,
2002, from http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed335175.html.
An improved teaching style may be improved by understanding the learning
styles and preferences of Native American students. Swisher discusses
learning style research conducted in indigenous environments and makes
suggestions to teachers about how they might incorporate such knowledge
into their classroom and teaching style.
23. Swisher, Karen. (1994). American Indian learning styles survey:
an assessment of teachers knowledge. The journal of educational issues
of language minority students, 13. Retrieved April 7, 2002 from http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu/miscpubs/jeilms/vol13/americ13.htm.
Karen Swisher, in her survey of non-Indian and Indian educators, investigated
the knowledge of learning styles on the part of the educators. The study
also addresses how much the educators believe that cultural values of
American Indians influences a student's learning style and demonstration
of learning. The study reported a significant difference in the types
of cultural values thought to influence learning styles between American
Indian and non-Indian respondents. While the respondents had a average
understanding of learning styles, there was not a great assumption that
cultural values influenced learning style preferences.